How to lead in the digital age

The C-suite executives and HR leaders that will succeed in the era of digital change and global economic and political uncertainty will be those that are the most curious and adaptable rather than those that are rigid and hierarchical.

That is one of the key insights to emerge in the first episode of Invisible Admin: Conversations about the future of work – a series of podcasts from Sage and Inquisition.

A good leader in the past was regarded as a person who was certain about what needed to be done. But with technology, economic and political change unfolding at such a rapid pace, today’s leaders operate in a world that is less certain. Strategies developed today may need to change tomorrow in response to new competition, new technology or different economic circumstances.

As globalisation and new technology challenge managers’ traditional mindsets, they also need to relook the profile of the people they employ. They need to build teams that are comfortable with change and ambiguity – and that in turn demands that they think about training, recruitment and management in new ways.

The on-the-go workforce

The pace of change in today’s working environment and Millenials joining the workforce both demand a new approach to training and development. While it is important to deliver lifelong learning, organisations should make content available in a way that suits today’s on-the-go workforce — for example, digestible chunks of online video or audio content that can be listened to in the car on the way to work or at the gym.

Rather than forcing employees to learn in classroom type training sessions, we should accommodate them by giving them access to materials on their mobile devices. They should be able to learn at work or in their own time, at their own pace and in formats that meet their needs.

It is also important to encourage innovation and experimentation on-the-job to create a responsive and innovative workforce. Leaders and employees should read widely and share what they learn with their teams. This should be integrated into the company in the form or ‘book review’ sessions – or even a company ‘book club’.

Experimentation key to responsiveness

Many leaders know that they are facing uncertainty but aren’t quite sure how to start adapting to it. The easiest, simplest way to start this journey is to encourage teams to experiment. Experiments can be small or large, but the key is to start questioning long held assumptions about the way we work and why we things in a specific way. For example, one could test out allowing people to work from home for two days a week and monitor productivity levels or do away with email updates and meetings for a week and see what happens. Over time, this approach will help companies become more responsive to changes in the environment.

The end of one-size-fits-all workplaces

Other shift leaders must prepare for is the move to a more personalised work experience rather than the one-size-fits-all HR practices of the past. For example, people expect to learn on their own terms. Where training and development once needed to be standardised for the sake of efficiency and control, digital tools give organisations the flexibility to customise training programmes and track them efficiently.

In practice, that may mean gathering data about employees and using analytics to see what they expect from the workplace and how they feel about the employer brand.

Anonymous employee surveys can be a useful tool in this regard; it’s also important to communicate with employees using different mediums, whether that’s video or Twitter.

Ultimately, the behaviours that the millennial generation is bringing into the workforce will become pervasive. They are the customers and employees of the future and they expect to find a collaborative, connected and personalised work experience. Leaders that tap into their ability to multi-task, cope with uncertainty and leverage technology will be positioned for success.

Anja Van Beek is the Vice President of People (HR) at Sage International (Africa, Middle East, Asia & Australia) and Graeme Codrington, an expert on the future world of work and founder of TomorrowToday.

How new technologies could usher new era of ‘personalised public transport’

Many of us have experienced the simplicity and convenience of hailing an Uber. It certainly seems like the 180-degree opposite of South Africa’s fragmented, informal (and sometimes unreliable) public transport networks.

But what if we could use the principles and the technology that made Uber great, and apply them to our urban public transport systems? Could we bring order to the chaos, and improve the lives of millions of commuters?

The answer to both questions is a resounding ‘yes’. In fact, the sensors, the geolocation technology, and the strong smartphone penetration are already in place.

In pilot programmes within South Africa’s largest metropolis, Johannesburg, users will soon be able to fire up an app, and get real-time views of the nearest buses meandering to their next stops (just like tracking your approaching Uber driver). They’ll be able to enter their departure and destination points, and immediately get a view of waiting times, travelling times, and costs.

In time, these programmes will expand to beyond just the major bus operators, into other forms of transport as well – potentially including trains, taxis, and other ride-sharing services.

Power to the people

With hundreds of bus, taxi and train routes weaving around the city, the fabric of our public transport system is highly elaborate, and often confusing for users. But by surfacing relevant, point-in-time, information, commuters are able to more easily plan their way to work or to home.

Daily schedules and defined routes certainly exist, but the reality is that in South Africa, the schedules are often affected by delays, congestion, power outages, and other issues. By using mobile apps, we can minimise those problems by showing users a real-time view of the nearest bus, where it’s stopping, and where it’s ultimately heading.

This is the exciting promise of digitisation. Armed with well-packaged information, consumers have greater power and control – enabling them to make smarter choices about which public transport method to use. It makes the experience of public transport a highly personal one.

And by analysing a user’s most common routes, proactive alerts can be streamed to targeted groups of commuters, to let them know of any issues that may affect their travel times on that day, further enhancing the sense of personalisation.

For public transport operators and city officials, this data can also be used to optimally plan new transport infrastructure, modify the schedules, and increase the throughput of daily commuters.

Cross-roads

Public transport in South Africa is at a cross-road, affected by a number of colliding local and global forces.

Locally, cities and municipalities are under increasing pressure to formalise their taxi networks – with the goals of creating better public-private partnerships, increasing tax and license fee collection from operators, and improving commuter safety.

A great example is the Western Cape town of George. It’s Integrated Public Transport Network involved informal taxi operators being incentivised to create a new operating entity, fully supported by the local municipality and aligned with government’s vision for public transport nationally.

Globally, the advent of the so-called “collaborative economy” has kicked into gear a wide variety of new ways to get around – from ride-hailing apps, to car-pooling services, to bicycle rentals, and more. Before too long, the effects of these new social shifts will start filtering into South African transport.

Municipalities that make investments in the right technologies will be well placed to address these local and global opportunities. The road might start with a simple app, but who knows where it will lead …

Craig Heckrath is a Product Development Manager at Intervate.

Why your small business should get into e-commerce

E-commerce is no longer just for flashy start-ups or big companies with even bigger budgets – it is also becoming a valuable channel to market for Small & Medium Businesses.

From plumbers to playschools and from artisan food stores to gardening services, all sorts of small businesses can benefit from allowing their customers to shop and pay online.

This can work especially well for seasonal promotions when many people will be looking for gift ideas online or might not have time to get to the shops.   

Here are a few reasons why e-commerce is a big opportunity for South African business builders of all sizes.

The demand is there and it is growing by the day

According to research from World Wide Worx, South Africans spend around R9 billion a year on online shopping. Sure, that’s just 1% of the total retail market, but the value of e-commerce is expanding by more than 20% a year. Investing in e-commerce now positions you take advantage of South Africans’ growing appetite for digital convenience.

It’s easier and more affordable than ever before

With the right solution, it is fast, affordable and simple to set up a slick, attractive and secure e-commerce website. The best solutions include features for search and social media marketing to help boost your web traffic, sales leads and store orders by targeting potential customers online.

They can also integrate with your accounting packaging, updating pricing, stock levels and product data in real time.

You can give customers different options to pay

Payments gateways accept a range of payment types through your online store, including VISA and Mastercard card payments, bank EFT, instant EFT, and mobile wallets like Masterpass. Even if you visit customers on-site to render a service or they come into your store, they can go online at their convenience to pay you with the method that suits them best.

You can reach new cities and even new countries with minimal investment

In the past, if you wanted to sell dresses from your Cape Town boutique in Johannesburg or San Francisco, you would need to incur costs such as rent, staffing and utilities. Now, you can sell to people from around the country and the world through a website.

Though South Africa’s logistics network has a way to go before it is as cheap and reliable as those in the US and Europe, there are many great courier companies who can help you ship packages across town or to the other side of the world at an affordable cost. Even in your own neighbourhood, people who shop online might represent a new market for you over the business you get from referrals or walk-ins.

Customers do their research online – use e-commerce to convert browsing to sales

A growing portion of customers do their research about pricing and options online before they buy – these days the Internet is the Yellow Pages for anyone who needs an electrician or a new bicycle.

For that reason, many small businesses already appreciate the importance of marketing themselves using Facebook pages and ads, listing themselves with online directories and maintaining a professional-looking website. If you haven’t, you should start with those basics before you go the e-commerce route.

Adding e-commerce to your existing online presence can help you capture more sales. For example, if a serious buyer is browsing through your online catalogue of televisions, making it easy for him or her to buy and pay might close the deal. Researchers say that it can take as little as 2.5 seconds for a consumer to make a purchasing decision – you don’t want to miss out on that window.

Quick tips for doing e-commerce the right way:

Be responsive – online shoppers are impatient and expect a quick answer to queries via email or social media.
• Make sure you partner with a good courier company – missed or late deliveries will hurt your reputation and profitability.
• Remember to make some effort in marketing your e-commerce site – that includes online marketing (SEO, social, Google ads) and offline marketing (ads in the local papers, on your business cards etc.)
• Use a reputable payments company – a robust gateway means peace of mind for your customers and for you as the merchant.
• Be ready to learn about new customer segments – international or online customers may have different expectations to your usual clientele.

Viresh Harduth is the Vice President: New Customer Acquisition (Start up and Small Business) at Sage Africa & Middle East.

What does a high employee turnover really cost your business?

Despite the increasing emphasis of organisations in implementing measures to retain top talent, very few companies actually consider the financial implications of losing employees.

Rather, they opt to see increased staff turnover as an opportunity to cut the ‘excess baggage’ of unhappy and underperforming staff.

While businesses still focus on acquiring good candidates with the right skills, they often fail to retain these individuals once appointed.

With increasing competition for top talent, business cannot afford to lose their current employees to competing organisations. Scouting for and hiring talent is costly, and the training and orientation of new hires also comes with their – in both time and resources.

A recent survey by Deloitte, the 2016 Deloitte Millennial Survey, found that around two-thirds of millennial employees have expressed a desire to leave their organisations by 2020*.

With 76% of millennials planning to leave their current employers before 2020, “our next generational leaders already have one foot out of the door”.

The reality is that poor staff retention negatively impacts not only staff morale, but also productivity and therefore your organisation’s bottom-line. In addition, on-boarding a new employee – including advertising the position, interviewing the candidate, screening and hiring – can prove costly.

Compensating on the productivity backlog caused by high staff turnover cannot be done overnight, and realistically speaking, optimising lost productivity can take up to two years in some cases.

To minimise the potential impact of poor staff retention, organisations should consider the following:
• Ensure the right employment from inception by being stringent during your interviewing and vetting processes.
• Be fair and consistent when it comes to compensation benefits available to employees.      
• Publically acknowledge that your employees are valued and appreciated.
• Promote a positive working environment, employee optimism nearly always translates into job satisfaction, which in turn means less sick leave, absenteeism and improved overall productivity.
• Keep the lines of communication open, to ensure you foster good relationships with employees.
• Employees, especially millennials, enjoy receiving ongoing constructive feedback.

When it comes to millennials and Generation Z, always bear in mind that they are driven by challenging, meaningful work that has a tangible impact in the world and workplace.

They are innovative and ambitious, and like to be stretched all while working independently on engaging assignments that allow them to optimise and innovate in the business.

Ultimately, you cannot stop each and every resignation however, through implementing proper recruitment processes and strategic employee management practices backed by appropriate reward and incentive programmes, you can ensure that your organisation experiences more highs than lows when it comes to productivity and retention.

Kay Vittee is the CEO of Quest Staffing Solutions.

*The 2016 Deloitte Millennial Survey.

What is fixed term employment and procedural fairness in large scale retrenchments?

Issues:
Whether the employees’ fixed term contracts had terminated by operation of law having regard to section 196B of the LRA.

Whether the employer should be compelled to reinstate dismissed employees in terms of section 189A (13) of the Labour Relations Act 66 of 1995 (“LRA”) pending a fair dismissal procedure.

Court’s decision

In the case of AMCU and Others v Piet Wes CC and Another (J2834/16; J2845/16) [2017] ZALCJHB 7 (13 January 2017) a number of employees, all of whom were members of AMCU, had been employed, by two employers (“service providers”),  on purported fixed term contracts. The two disputes were consolidated given the similar underlying facts. The service providers provided services to Exxaro Coal Mines as contractors. The employees’ fixed-term contracts contained no definite termination date. Instead, the employees’ contracts of employment provided that their services would terminate should a third party (which would include Exxaro) terminate its contracts with the service providers The continuation of the employees’ contracts, so the services providers contended, were dependent upon their contracts with Exxaro.

Exxaro terminated the services of both service providers. As a direct result the service providers dismissed the employees, claiming their contracts of employment had terminated by effluxion of time. It was common cause that no retrenchment process, as envisaged by section 189A (it being a large scale retrenchment), was followed by the employers. The employees had not been consulted prior to the termination of their contracts of employment.

As a result AMCU, who represented the employees, launched an urgent application seeking, by virtue of section 189A (13) to compel the employers to re-instate the dismissed employees until such time as the service providers complied with the procedural requirements of section 189A of the LRA. Section 189A requires that employers who seek to dismiss employees for operational requirements properly consult with such employees’ trade union on all matters affecting the employees including the reasons for the proposed dismissals, alternatives that the employer considered before proposing that the employees be dismissed, the number of affected employees, the method for the selection of employees for dismissal, the severance pay proposed etcetera. Employers are also obliged to comply with the minimum consultation periods as prescribed within section 189A.

The central question before the Court was whether the employees’ contracts of employment terminated by operation of law. Section 189B regulates in what circumstances employees may be employed on a fixed term basis. Importantly, employees may only be so employed for a period in excess of three months (if they earn under the threshold of R205,433.30) if the nature of their work is of a limited or definite nature or there is another justifiable reason for the use of such contracts. An example of a ‘justifiable reason’ would be the employment of employees for a specific project.

The Court held that the service providers bore the onus of proving that there was a justifiable reason for the use of fixed term employers. The Court held that the reason for using such contracts in this case was insufficient. There was no indication on the facts that a specific project had come to an end.  This was not an instance where Exxaro had asked, for instance, that employees be brought in to clean a specific mine. Such an example would constitute a justifiable basis for employing the employees’ on a fixed term basis. The mere cancellation of a service contract by a client (in and of itself) was not a valid ground that the employer could rely on to show a justifiable reason to employ workers on a fixed term contract for more than three months.

Rather, it was clear that the contracts were not intended to be for a fixed term. To make employees’ employment contingent upon the whims of a third party would undermine their rights and the protection afforded by the LRA.

As a result the employees’ services could only be terminated once the provisions of section 189A had been adhered to. This required, among others, a process of consultation with AMCU (acting on behalf of the affected employees). AMCU were therefore successful in their application.

Importance of this case

This case highlights the importance of only using fixed term contracts in appropriate, justifiable circumstances. Employers seeking to employ employees on a fixed term basis must do so only upon proper consideration of the provisions of the LRA and once they are assured that the employment of such employees on such basis can be justified.

Andre Van Heerden is the Senior Associate & Jacques van Wyk is the Director at Werksmans Attorneys.

What is the impact of Pinterest on copyright laws

The traditional realm of copyright is being tested in a world where “liking”, “retweeting”, and “pinning” have become part of everyday life.

Pinterest has made it easy for users to collect images and inspiration for everything from home décor to planning weddings. Pinterest has also created a “Pin It” button for installation on to the Google Chrome browser so that a user can “pin” an interesting online article to his/her Pinterest board without opening the Pinterest homepage. While the perks are wonderful for the majority of Pinterest users, many artists are suffering as a result.

Copyright vests exclusively with the creator of the work or in the person who has commissioned or acquires the work from the creator (copyright holder). The right to control, exploit and distribute the work vests in the copyright holder. These rights are considered economic rights and may be licensed or assigned to third parties by way of agreement. Additionally, the creator of a work also maintains a moral right to the work which incorporates the right to authorship and integrity. If not contractually varied, these personal rights attach to the works even after the licence or assignment of rights to a third party. The creator must, therefore, always be credited and will be entitled to object to any modification of the work which would prejudice his/her reputation.

Pinterest poses a threat to the copyright and moral rights vested in an artist. By way of example, Pinterest users are able to “pin” an image directly from a website and are also able to download images from Pinterest itself. Where an image is “pinned” directly from the original source, the link to the source will be attached to the “pin”, visible to all other Pinterest users. Where an image has been downloaded from its original source and uploaded to Pinterest, however, the Pinterest user is provided with the opportunity, and not the requirement, to provide the link to the original source. Needless to say, there are many unsourced images being “repined” on a daily basis which directly impact the moral rights of the copyright holder. Pinterest not only provides its users with the option to save a “pin” on to a “pin” board but also to embed or download an image directly from Pinterest for the user’s own use. Pinterest is therefore able to provide access to an image and facilitate its distribution as part of its service resulting in many unlicensed images being exploited for commercial gain throughout the world without royalties being paid to the copyright owner.

Pinterest itself is protected against any claims of copyright infringement in terms of s512 of the Digital Millennium Copyright Act of 1998 with the result that a copyright holder’s sole remedy against Pinterest is to lodge a copyright complaint with Pinterest who will then investigate the complaint. If the complaint is found to be valid, Pinterest will remove the image from its platform. The copyright holder will then need to institute direct action against any Pinterest user who has infringed his/her copyright in order recover any damages suffered as a result.

Leanne Van Breda and Janet Mackenzie, Dispute Resolution practice and services, Cliffe Dekker Hofmeyr.

How are accomplice plea agreements exploiting dishonour among thieves?

When senior managers steal they typically do it knowing their employer’s systems back to front. They know which accounts can be skimmed and which assets nicked.

Seniority also provides insight into how their actions may be covered up. Managers understand what transactions trigger audits and where holes exist in record-keeping. If the company monitors email and telephones or the cameras down the back fire-escape no longer work – they are often in the loop on that.

The law reports are replete with managers misappropriating monies, stealing equipment, misusing vehicles, copying sensitive data and paying inflated invoices. Kimberly recently hosted a most intricate scheme where a trusted senior manager defeated all manner of security systems – red-areas, glove-boxes, magnetic safes and click-clack jars – to sneak out high value diamonds1. It is one of those cases where you half want to fire the employee and half want to promote him for sheer ingenuity.

Once suspicion comes to lie upon a sophisticated crook their ability to have earlier avoided finger-pointing paper-trails means evidence of misconduct may be scant. After all, only evidence counts in a disciplinary hearing or civil court. This is where, during the investigation stage, getting possible ‘accomplices’ to talk becomes important. These are sometimes the proverbial little fish, although it is not unheard of for one kingpin to turn another in.

Acts of financial misconduct should be difficult to commit alone. The design of financial, procurement and asset management systems in most large organisations typically prevents a single employee from controlling a transaction from beginning to end. Successful theft, fraud or corruption then requires that other employees turn a blind eye or share in the loot along the way.

Logic dictates that accomplices who also face dismissal will be reluctant and even hostile employer informants and witnesses. Indeed, it is better for them to withhold cooperation during an investigation, taking their chances in a disciplinary hearing and at the CCMA. An employer wishing to lead the evidence of an accomplice typically needs to offer a deal. This takes the form of an agreement that the employee plead guilty to their own role in the misconduct, accept a sanction short of dismissal on condition they truthfully testify at the subsequent hearings of their confederates.

A recent Labour Court case has delved into how fairness affects making these deals. In this case2, four employees in the Eastern Cape Department of Health who took a jaunt to watch a World Cup 2010 match at taxpayers’ expense in an aircraft meant for emergency medical evacuations. An additional charge was supplying false statements to the MEC for Health in the Eastern Cape when later questioned about this trip.

As one might imagine, the department sought the dismissal of the employees. One of them however accepted an offer to testify against the rest in exchange for indemnity from dismissal. Crucially, he had sat in the private meeting where a lie was concocted by the panicked soccer fans after the MEC asked about the trip. The initiator of the disciplinary enquiry considered his evidence crucial on this charge. Indemnity was conditional on his accepting a final written warning for the same offence and testifying frankly and honestly at the later disciplinary hearing of his colleagues.

The other passengers on the plane were duly dismissed. The fairness of the decision was confirmed at the Bargaining Council. The employees took this finding to the Labour Court on review. One of the grounds of review was that, by treating the accomplice witness differently, the employer inconsistently applied discipline to the other employees. Their misconduct was no more severe. Why were they also not given the chance to ‘plea bargain’?

The Labour Court began by distinguishing a plea bargain where the employer and employee agree on a sanction ahead of a hearing and plea agreements where the employer offers a lesser sanction to an accomplice to secure his testimony. Plea bargains rest on the idea that, if an employee shows remorse by accepting responsibility and spares everyone a drawn-out hearing, a lesser sanction may be appropriate. In a plea agreement, the employer is forced to offer a lesser sanction otherwise it has insufficient evidence to proceed against anyone. As the Court found:

“38 … The employees’ complaint that they were also owed a plea deal betrays a misunderstanding of the type of plea deal on offer. It was not a plea deal where a lesser sanction was agreed in exchange for a guilty plea so as to avoid a hearing. The purpose of the plea bargain offered to Mxesibe was to secure evidence against the rest of the employees to enable their discipline. The lesser sanction agreed with Mxesibe was not in recognition that the charge he faced was not serious enough to warrant dismissal if he pleaded guilty but was rather a necessary compromise by the employer to induce the co-operation of an accomplice in a disciplinary hearing.”

To expect that all employees be offered the same opportunity was nonsensical: “[39] The object of securing evidence to discipline employees who misconducted themselves would be completely defeated if every one of the employees involved in the misconduct were offered a plea bargain to testify against the others.”

The Court stated that plea agreements were an ‘important mechanism’ to secure evidence used every day in criminal law3. It accepted that these could be imported into labour law with appropriate checks and balances. The Court pertinently remarked that, in the selection of an accomplice witness, the employer possessed a great deal of latitude. An employer would select someone with adequate overall knowledge of the offence. People peripherally involved in the incident would not fit this bill. A prospective witness would likely be someone the employer thinks would best ‘withstand any pressure to recant’ and who would come off well on the witness stand.

Addressing possible unfairness in the selection of witnesses, the key issue was that the employer’s decision should not betray male fides. 


Signs that the discretion to select an accomplice witness might be capriciously exercised include that:

•    it was unnecessary to have offered any witness a deal to testify against the others and therefore the agreement seems a ruse to enable the employee to escape accountability;
•    the witness was the ‘big fish’ used to provide evidence against the ‘little fish’; or
•    the witness was selected with by an ‘improper motive’ such as favouritism or unfair discrimination against the other employees. This might apply when, for example, white employees are routinely offered pleas and never employees of other races.

Interestingly, the court rejected the argument that an accomplice witness’ guilty plea is an indication of true remorse. As a defense against inconsistency, a guilty plea is not a true distinguishing factor between him and his fellow wrongdoers.

[43] If accomplice plea agreements are to be imported into labour law, it is best not to be sentimental about those who accept them. Accomplice plea agreements are by-and-large induced by the avoidance of dismissal and not contrition. The evidence these accomplice witnesses provide should also be evaluated with this in mind.

This sounds a necessary warning that those evaluating the account provided by an accomplice or accessory should do so with caution, amounting almost to suspicion. After all, they have a powerful reason to colour their evidence, minimize their own role or satisfy their employer by embroidering their evidence.

It remains then for investigators, when other evidence is poor, to skillfully obtain the co-operation of the right kind of accomplice witness. If anything is an art and not a science, then interviewing ‘suspects’ is. While high levels of solidarity among rank-and-file employees sometimes enforced with intimidation obstruct obtaining ‘impimpi’ testimony, the same might not apply among managers. It is sad to say but, given South Africa’s inequality levels and wage structure, the fall in lifestyle for a manager suddenly out of a job is far more precipitous than for a blue-collar worker. This is an additional feature that might motivate a manager to more easily co-operate in an investigation, even at the risk of being unpopular with his mates.

Naturally, an investigator would do well to imply confidence in the employer’s case during an interview. If the investigator places a dud hand on the table in an interview with a prospective witness, leverage disappears.  

Once there is agreement, this should be in writing. The agreement should contain nothing suggesting the witness is expected to say anything but the truth in the hearing. Indemnity must be conditional on the employee giving frank and honest testimony. The chairperson of the hearing makes this finding. A material deviation from an earlier statement to an investigator would mean no indemnity agreement was reached in the first place and entitle the employer to take further disciplinary steps.

Without importing all the criminal law formalities an agreement modelled on a section 204 of the Criminal Procedure Act is probably best practice. Employers might want to generate such a template to avoid unnecessary legal fees.

What MEC: Dept of Health – ECP shows is that, as is the case with entrapment4, certain criminal law precepts are usefully imported into labour law. They make practical sense and have fairness at their heart. As much as labour law purists would prefer a strict distinction between these fields of law, once an employer becomes concerned with issues of guilt, proof, evidence and sanction, they come to inhabit the same strategic world as any prosecutor. There is no reason not to borrow and suitably amend some of the tools used by the latter to assemble a good case against dishonest employees. If the existing evidence is not conclusive, why not try to exploit the inherent dishonour among thieves?

The Labour Court has recognised that this mechanism of proof is not inherently unfair.

Heinrich Böhmke is a director, trainer and investigator at Meridian Training.

References
1. Superstone Mining (Pty) Ltd v Dale Lonsdale Hohne (176/12) [2014] ZANCHC 6
2. MEC: Department of Health, ECP v PHSDSBC and Others (2016) 37 ILJ 1429 (LC)
3. Section 204 of the Criminal Procedure Act of 1977
4. Cape Town City Council v South African Municipal Workers Union (SAMWU) and Others (C367/98) [2000] ZALC 106

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